(Dr. Richard & Phyllis Arno)
Temperament Theory is based on the premise that temperament is the inner part of man which God placed within him/her in the womb. One’s temperament remains the same throughout life.
Temperament Therapy is concerned with identifying an individual’s basic temperament and its needs; the way which one goes about meeting these needs and the effects of not meeting these needs.
There are three aspects of Temperament Therapy:
1. Understanding our own unique self and temperament needs
2. Surrender to God through the Lordship of Jesus Christ and to His plan for our lives
3. Willingness to surrender our ungodly ways of meeting our temperament needs
A) Replacing them with biblical/godly ways of meeting our needs
B) Living out our strengths and overcoming our weaknesses by daily surrender to God while receiving His help
Every person has temperament needs in varying degree. These needs are met by either drawing from the soul, mind, will, emotions or from the spirit; the body is under the control of either the soul or spirit.
Both interpersonal and inner conflicts are temperament related and caused by:
1. Individuals trying to meet legitimate temperament needs in ungodly ways:
(Seeking peace through drugs; manipulating others to get recognition)
2. Temperament needs being out of balance:
(focusing on intellectual pursuits without taking time alone to recharge; taking on jobs that are too people oriented if you are task oriented; rejecting others out of low self-esteem issues when you really have high social needs)
3. Reaction to unmet temperament needs:
(anxiety from taking too much responsibility for others; anger over unmet affection needs; anxiety from lack of a peaceful environment)
Areas & Needs:
Temperament is divided into three areas: Inclusion, Control, and Affection
These areas are further broken into two types of NEEDS:
Those temperament needs which we express or show to others around us through gesture, facial expressions, words or actions: AWhat you say you want.
Those temperament needs which we want, desire and wish to have fulfilled: AWhat you really want.
In addition to the three areas there are recognized strengths and weaknesses in each.
INCLUSION: The need to establish and maintain satisfactory relationships with people in the area of surface relationships, association and socialization. This includes the cognitive or intellectual functions of the temperament, the way we receive and process information (Intellectual energies) corresponds to the AMind in the soul realm.
Need of Inclusion: Sense of Significance- BELONG
CONTROL: The need to establish and maintain a satisfactory relationship with people in respect to control and power.
Dictates whether we will be a leader or a follower.
Our decision making process and style is also included, corresponds to the AWill in the soul realm.
Need of Control: Sense of Competence- DO
AFFECTION: The need to give love and affection and how we want to receive love and affection from others. Affection is the area of the temperament which deals one on one.
This is not a group function as are Inclusion and Control.
This area deals with deeper relationships involving intimacy and vulnerability, sharing close, personal, feelings and innermost desires. Corresponds to the AEmotions in the soul realm.
Need of Affection: Sense of Worthiness- BE
When temperament is pinpointed and understood this will lead toward:
*Deeper self-awareness
*Stronger more fulfilling marriages, family relationships and friendships
*Appropriate decision making strategies
*Better career and hobby choices
*Healthy ways to counteract stress and pressure
*Development of spiritual maturity
(In order to determine to one’s temperament the Arno Profile System is used. The following page explains the reports development and use in counseling).
In 1983, the N.C.C.A. was established as a non-profit corporation for the purpose of conducting research and developing a Scripturally based therapeutic procedure which would: (1) be reasonably easy to learn; (2) save pastors and Christian counselors precious time in their counseling sessions; and (3) produce effective, positive and more immediate results with those needing guidance. During this time of research, the N.C.C.A. worked with more than 5,000 individuals. These were persons who sought counseling for depression, inter/intra-personal conflict, marriage and family dysfunctions and anxiety. The purpose of this research was to: (1) increase the effectiveness of the N.C.C.A.’s therapeutic procedure; (2) measure the percentage of success within a controlled environment; and (3) develop an accurate clinical testing procedure for initial identification of the counselee’s temperament. During this same time, in-depth studies were conducted on all current psychological tests and/or behavioral inventories. For many reasons, Dr. Richard G. Arno selected the FIRO-B, which was developed by Dr. Will Schutz, as its initial measuring device or questionnaire. The N.C.C.A. named its analysis procedure Temperament Analysis Profile (T.A.P.) and subsequently re-titled it in October 2000 to the Arno Profile System, which helps reveal the “hidden problems” that normally take the counselor seven or eight sessions to identify. Presently, over 3,000 pastors and Christian counselors rely on the Arno Profile System to aid them in their counseling efforts. These counselors report an accuracy rate of over ninety percent (90%) in identifying an individual’s correct (inborn) temperament. After a counselee responds to the 54 questions, the counselor sends the responses to the N.C.C.A.’s headquarters in Sarasota, Florida, or to a local state office. A seven or eight page analysis is generated and provided for the counselor. Four different types of reports can be provided: Clinical, Personal, Personnel or Youth. The Arno Profile System report does not measure a person’s behavior; it identifies a person’s inborn temperament. Who God created us to be (temperament) and who we became (through learned behavior) can be vastly different. We need to find out who we really are and find ways to become the person God wants us to become instead of the person we have learned to be. The temperament identification provided in the Arno Profile System identifies three separate human interactions, Inclusion (social orientation/intellectual energies), Control (decision making abilities or inabilities) and Affection (interaction in deep relationships). It also identifies each one of these interactions in two ways, expressed (what we say we want) and wanted (what we really want).Dr. Richard G. Arno identified a fifth temperament. Traditionally, there have been four temperaments, Melancholy, Sanguine, Choleric and Phlegmatic. The fifth temperament that was identified by the N.C.C.A. research over 14 years ago is called the Supine. This identification area describes a person who, by their very nature, is a servant and feels that they have little or no value. The Arno Profile System identifies a person’s temperament in each one of the three interaction areas. For example, a person may be a Sanguine in the Inclusion (social) area, a Melancholy in control (decision making) area and Supine in Affection (deep relationships) area.
The Arno Profile System, which was developed and continues to be taught by Drs. Richard and Phyllis Arno, is inexpensive and can save the counselor/counselee about eight counseling sessions because it targets the hidden problems immediately. Administering the Arno Profile System is the first step in the model that is taught by the N.C.C.A.